After my last post, some questions came up about how to foster the sort of independence that made Mrs. G’s classroom work like a well oiled machine. A big part of the answer is teacher talking moves!
So much of our daily classroom life is spent engaged in talk. The importance of student talk is immeasurable, and in order to talk well students must be given many opportunities to converse and become immersed in an environment that values their voice. An entire blog post could be devoted to the importance of fostering student talk, but I want to focus on how teacher talk can cultivate student independence and accountability in the workshop classroom.
Teacher talk is what sets the classroom tone. The talking moves that we make day-to-day make a profound impact on students. How many of you have come to the end of a school year and noticed that your students sound just like you? The behaviors, attitudes, and habits we model will be emulated by our students, which is why it is so important that we use our talk effectively.
Talk to Foster Independence
As mentioned in my previous post, a main belief backing the workshop model is that we are working to create independent readers and writers who have a repertoire of effective reading and writing strategies they can apply as needed. Workshop teachers do this by using whole-class mini-lessons to add to students’ repertoire, teaching them how to use various strategies they can draw on over and over. This approach differs from traditional classrooms, where teachers use instruction at the start of the lesson to model and teach what everyone is expected to do during independent work time that day. Basically, in a workshop classroom, you should not assign a task for students to complete that day!
The language we use to dismiss students to work time will encourage the idea that students have options and choice about their day’s work. Some phrases you might say include:
- “So let’s review your options for what work you’ll do today.” *Refer students to unit anchor chart.
- “So when you’re ready to work on [insert the day’s mini-lesson topic] remember this tip… But you can also draw on all you’ve learned to do, prior to now.”
- “So we can now add [insert the day’s mini-lesson topic] to our Strategies of…. anchor chart. Look over the chart, and make a plan for today. What will you be working on?” *Students could turn and talk, telling a partner their plan for the day.
- “So far we’ve learned readers/writers use many different strategies to [name out skill]. Which one will you work on today?” *Students could raise their hand in a quick informal poll.
- “So when you reach that part of your text, remember that you can…” *This is good when you know that you have students who have not reached the particular point in a book for the strategy you’ve just modeled.
All of these talking moves will allow students to reflect on their progress, set goals, and make an action plan. These actions are the exact behaviors we expect from independent, self-directed learners!
Talk to Foster Work Accountability
We can also use our talk to promote accountability in student work. Sometimes there are days when a student may not have approximated any of the strategies that you have modeled. You would like to give students an opportunity to turn and talk about that work, but you worry that that particular student will not have anything to contribute.
I saw this situation recently in a third-grade classroom. Students were working on tracking characters along a story mountain. Some students had drawn their mountain, but had not added any plot points. The teacher kept them accountable by saying,
“Even if you haven’t drawn any plot points, point and say what your points would have been.”
We can use talk as a means for students to practice strategies they have not exhibited “on paper”. No one gets an out because they didn’t get to it.
Talk to Foster Accountable Talk
We’ve all seen the Accountable Talk posters on Pinterest and have really taken to them. However, students cannot learn these talking moves from a poster on the wall. We as teachers need to model these talking moves regularly when conversing with students. Some common conversational moves and their purposes are:
- Marking: “That was an important point.”
- Challenging students: “What do you think?”
- Keeping everyone together: “Who can repeat what Johnny just said?”
- Keeping the channels open: “Did everyone hear that?”
- Linking contributions: “Who wants to add on to Mikala’s point?
- Verifying and clarifying: “So are you saying…”
- Pressing for accuracy: “Where can we find proof/text evidence of that?”
- Expanding reasoning: “Take your time, say more.”
- Pressing for reasoning: “Why do you think that?”
- Building on prior knowledge: “How does this connect?”
Nancy Frey, at a recent Rutgers University workshop, said that we need to immerse students into these talking patterns by using them as often as possible. When this language becomes a way of life for us, it will soon become a way of life for students.
The sooner we make our talk align with our goals for students, the sooner a positive outcome will ensue. We have to make sure that what we are saying to kids truly embodies our beliefs about teaching and learning. What we say in the workshop classroom is just as important as what we do.
What kind of talking moves do you make in your classroom to foster independence and accountability?
Let’s keep the conversation going-
2 thoughts on “Fostering Student Independence and Accountability”
Just expanding on your thoughts, I JUST went to Teacher’s College Reading and Writing Project’s spring Reunion day of free workshops and listened to Kathleen Tolan speak about students giving feedback in writing workshop. She echoed so much of what you just said! She also brought up the importance of teaching students how to “talk like a teacher” and just as we need to “name the teaching point” in our conferences we need to support students to do the same type of talk when giving suggestions to their peers. She emphasized the importance that in these partnerships each partner has a very clear role: one person is the teacher and the other is the student. I found myself reflecting and just thinking about how much of this stands on the legs of a classroom culture and climate of respect for each other and respect for always looking to achieve more.
She also brought up the importance of having students finish a piece of writing and then do a self-reflection writing piece where they write about their personal thoughts of their writing and working towards their writing goals. This could then be shared in peer conferences and the peer can highlight areas of the text that show the improvement that the student was working on. This allows students to see very explicitly whether their goals were in fact present in their mind and evident in their final products.
Thanks for making me think even further about this, and I can’t wait to test this out with more fidelity in the classrooms next year!
Thank you for your comment and thoughtful extension! So much of my thinking stands on the shoulders of the brilliant minds at the TCRWP. It is amazing to me how much talk matters, and the positive changes quality talk can bring about. Imagine how feedback in the classroom would be multiplied when students are doing the partnership work you mentioned! I appreciate you adding to the conversation and wish you luck as you try this work out next year. I look forward to hearing how it goes!